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epidemic is man-made and can be switched off. Most cancers
today, regardless of cancer site, are carcinomas of the
epithelial cells. These are caused by Reactive Oxygen
Species (ROS). ROS remove an electron from DNA which is
then replaced by a carcinogen. By far the most common ROS
is hypochlorous acid. This is routinely added to town and
city water supplies as a disinfectant.
Cancer is a preventable condition. I set up this website
as an informational to bring together the various lines of
research which are well established by peer review and
which make it clear that cancers are not chance events but
very much the result of chemical dosing which is
deliberately encouraged by public health policy.
The cancer epidemic is an
epidemic of a class of cancers called carcinomas. These
are oxidative in nature, that is, they require the
oxidation of DNA to pave the way for the addition of a
carcinogen. My initial reaction to the word "carcinoma" is
that it describes something which causes cancer but it is
in fact secondary to the cause, which is oxidation.
Carcinoma-type cancers are formed by a "redox" reaction
which involves, firstly, oxidation (to remove an
electric charge) followed by reduction (to add a
charge) by the addition of a carcinogen.
This example is the attachment of
benzo(a)pyrene at a guanine in DNA, breaking a
cross rung as the bonds of that rung are rearranged
in the attachment process. Benzo(a)pyrene commonly comes
from benzopyrene which is found in cigarette
smoke. Benzopyrene converts to benzo(a)pyrene,
in which form it is a carcinogen.
There are a great many carcinogens and the
list is growing. However, there are very very
few oxidizing agents which can damage DNA
sufficiently to allow carcinogens to attach.
By far the most common oxidizing agent comes
from the chlorination of drinking water in the
mistaken belief that chlorination makes water
safe to drink. It does not.
recognition of the problem:
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is
the body in the United States (I live in New Zealand)
which is responsible for drinking water standards in that
country. In 2003 (the year I began my research) they put
it the problem this way -
"Chlorine has been widely used as a chemical
disinfectant, serving as a principal barrier to
microbial contaminants in drinking water. However, the
microbial risk reduction attributes of chlorination have
been increasingly scrutinized due to concerns about
potential increased health risks... new health studies
continue to support an association between bladder,
colon and rectal cancers from long-term exposure to
chlorinated surface water. In addition to cancer
effects, recent studies have reported associations
between (the) use of chlorinated drinking water and a
number of reproductive and developmental endpoints
including spontaneous abortion, still birth, neural tube
defect, pre-term delivery, low birth weight and
intrauterine growth retardation (small for gestational
age)... Based on the weight of evidence from both
the human epidemiology and animal toxicology data on
cancer and reproductive and developmental health effects
and consideration of the large number of people exposed
to chlorinated byproducts in drinking water
(approximately 254 million), EPA concludes that: (1)
Current reproductive and developmental health effects
data support a hazard concern, (2) new cancer data
strengthens the evidence of an association of
chlorinated water with bladder cancer and suggests an
association for colon and rectal cancers, and (3) the
combined health data warrant regulatory action..."
Peer reviewed well controlled study:
The EPA based their view in part on an excellent
study by Yang et al, who found that the incidence of
carcinomas was greatly increased for people on chlorinated
water supplies. This supported a considerable number of
previous studies which came to the same conclusion.
Additionally, Yang et al identified the increases in
incidence in detail, that is by cancer site. This clearly
demonstrated that it is carcinomas which are affected by
chlorination. This study is an excellent read both for its
design and for the clear results.
Cancer and Heart Failure are both presentations
The connection between chlorination and
cancer is becoming better known. Lagging behind this is
awareness that heart failure is also a result of
chlorination. Cancer and heart failure are regarded as two
separate conditions but in fact they are both the
result of the same causal factor - oxidation by the
Chlorine as a water disinfectant produces two acids -
hypochlorous acid and hydrochloric acid. The former acid
we know to oxidise DNA but what is not so well known is
that the latter acid, hydrochloric acid, is also related
to heart failure. This acid is corrosive to metal pipes
and fittings so, almost invariably, a water supply has
it's pH adjusted alkaline using lime and this elevates
ischaemic heart failure rates. Consequently, the heart
failure epidemic is of equal severity to the cancer
In 1986 Dr Nathaniel Revis et al published
the "Relationship of Drinking Water Disinfectants to Plasma
Cholesterol and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Experimental
Studies" which clearly demonstrated the expected effect
traditional chlorine + pH adjustment of water supplies has on
cholesterol. Cholesterol is an antioxidant (and serves other
useful functions in addition to being an antioxidant) so the
consumption of chlorinated (oxidizing) water can be expected
to elevate the production of cholesterol antioxidant from the
liver - but the additional factor of pH adjustment also has to
be considered. Other studies where chlorinated water was
buffered rather than adjusted show little or no effect on
Reducing cholesterol using drugs compromises the protection of
DNA from oxidation and while this may reduce the incidence of
heart failure it also increases the risk of cancer (this shows
up in the epidemiology).
Cancer as an electrical process:
The role of electricity in cancer incidence has been
explored from the angle of radiated fields from power lines.
Most people have read of EMF and there are a myriad of rules
around the minimisation of EMF because of "possible" health
effects. These rules are based on work initially begun by
Wertheimer and Leeper (and others) which showed a correlation
between EMF and cancer. The research of Wertheimer and Leeper
was subsequently replicated by Savitz et al and shown to be
The problem with this is that the wavelength of
electrical radiation is too great to have any direct
effect on cells. Yet other work involving electrical current
as a cancer treatment shows that it can de-differentiate
cancer cells so that they return to normal.
Fortunately Nancy Wertheimer and Ed Leeper went on to discover
that while there was a connection between EMF and cancer, the
main factor in this link was conductive plumbing. In 1995 they
“In contrast to measured field intensity alone, for which
only modest associations with cancer have been reported,
this metric (conductive plumbing) shows a high and
significant cancer risk [matched O.R. = 4.0
This odds ratio (risk of cancer) is much higher than that for
It is reasonable to conclude that EMF is an indicator of the
presence and size of electrical currents passing along
conductive water pipes but it is not causal in itself. It is
the electrical current within water pipes which is pertinent
to cancer risk.
This effect was the subject of my post graduate research, the
conclusions of which I incorporate later. These have not been
published in a peer reviewed journal but I include them for
So we have three main factors to consider:
- oxidation by hypochlorous acid from
the chlorination process,
- reduction by the addtion of a
- the source of energy which allows the
redox reaction to complete.
already have an idea of how cancer starts but I
suggest it may be better to put that preconception
aside. There is a wealth of misinformation about how
cancer is supposed to start but much of that is driven
by the agenda of the agency producing it, be it
business or health authority. The medical profession
can be considered to be a business.
In looking at the cancer process I reiterate that I am
referring to carcinomas which are cancers of the
lining tissues of the intestinal tract and lung. These
lining tissues are epithelial cells and it is here
that carcinomas usually start compared to cancers of
the connective tissues of muscle and bone. The
carcinoma cancers form the cancer epidemic and they
are oxidative cancers - cancers whose origins lie in
oxidation at a cellular level lie and not from some
multiplicity of contributing factors or advancing
lifespans or other equally unsupportable claim.
The cancer epidemic is only tied to the introduction
of water chlorination. That is why it only affects
those communities which chlorinate their water
supplies. The cancer epidemic is not a global problem
affecting everyone - it only affects people drinking
Drinking water chlorination is a driver which very few
in the public health sector are prepared to
acknowledge. Yet it is clear from looking at the redox
process and the cancer epidemiology that this cancer
connection is expected theoretically (which is why
researchers know what to look for when designing
epidemiological studies) and very much apparent in the
data when epidemiological studies are done.
by hypochlorous acid:
of DNA, the removal of an electron from the DNA
ladder, is usually by hypochlorous acid.
Hypochlorous acid is "harmful to host" but plays a
last guard role in immune response. Normally there are
other ways of dealing with infection but if these are
compromised then hypochlorous acid may be employed.
For example, if an elderly person has an infection and
death will result from an inadequate immune response
then hypochlorous acid can be used to control the
infection, as a last resort. That person's life may be
saved and as the resultant cancer may take some time
to grow then the person may die of natural cause
before the cancer has developed sufficiently to affect
quality of life.
On the other hand, hypochlorous acid in chlorinated
water is not a once-in-a-lifetime "harmful to host"
event but a continuous assault with enormously
increased chances of cancer.
The chemical equation for the addition of chlorine to
2Cl + HOH =
HOCL + HCl
The hypochlorous acid, HOCl, is the oxidising agent. It is
also called a "reactive species" or "reactive oxygen
species" (ROS) and damages cells. It can compromise cell
walls, meaning that cell walls become leaky and allow the
hypochlorous acid to enter a cell and damage its DNA by
removing an electron.
Oxidation of DNA:
Oxidation is the removal of an electron. When an electron
is removed from DNA it is removed from a guanine component
of a DNA rung. This illustration shows electron removal
from carbon 8 (C8). The attachment of benzo(a)pyrene in
the first illustration is after removal of an electron
from N2 of the guanine.
Oxidation need not occur directly at a guanine. It can
occur anywhere in the DNA structure.
After oxidation, the electron hole migrates along the DNA
chain until it reaches a guanine. This is called"electron
hole migration" where the oxidized component obtains a
replacement electron from a neighbouring component. This
process of robbing Peter to pay Paul continues until it
reaches a guanine. Guanine has the lowest "oxidation
potential" so cannot obtain an electron from a neighbour.
Carcinogens then attach at a guanine.
Just to recap, carcinomas are caused by oxidation, not by
carcinogens. Oxidation damages the cell wall allowing the
oxidising agent access to DNA, from which it removes an
electron. The electron hole thus created migrates to a
guanine component and it it here that carcinogens attach
to create a carcinoma.
This process requires the loss of energy when the
carcinogen attaches. In many instances this loss of energy
is not possible and attachment cannot occur. However,
energy can be supplied to carcinogens which causes a
valency change of electrons in the carcinogen. This
valency change increases the electrical potential of the
carcinogen which may then be lost in the attachment
process to guanine, allowing the attachment to proceed.
Valency change which
increases the electrical potential of the atom is
where an electron shifts orbit from a lower to a
One way of creating valency change is by ionisation.